What parents need to know about the vaccine, risk and more

The vaccine that prevents infection from human papillomavirus (HPV) is nothing short of a medical marvel. It is one of the most effective vaccines ever made against any disease or infection. It even prevents genital warts and several types of cancer.

Pediatricians and primary care providers should recommend the HPV vaccine for all teens and preteens. If not, we encourage parents to ask about the vaccine. While it may be a tough decision for some parents to choose vaccination, it could also be one that saves your child’s life.

What are the benefits of the HPV vaccine?
HPV is very common and approximately 85% of people are infected with HPV at some point in their life. Preteens, teens and young adults who are vaccinated against HPV can be spared some of the deadliest, most disfiguring and hard-to-treat cancers, including cancers of the cervix, vagina, vulva, penis, anus, mouth and throat. More than 90% of cancers caused by HPV can be prevented. That’s 29,000 cases of cancer per year.

Because HPV spreads through intimate skin-to-skin contact, the idea of vaccination may be an uncomfortable reminder that your child will eventually choose to express their sexuality. While it may be hard to think about your children becoming sexually active — whether that happens sooner or later — it is often harder for patients and families to manage a new cancer diagnosis, especially if it can be prevented.

HPV also causes genital warts. Although genital warts are not harmful in most people, they are chronic, lifelong infections that can be embarrassing and unsightly. In some cases, genital warts can be extremely painful and may require surgery to remove them. They can be very difficult to manage for people with autoimmune disorders or who take medications that compromise their immune system.

Even if your child is not yet sexually active, there is absolutely no downside to getting the HPV vaccine. The greatest benefit is preventing your child from getting a deadly or disfiguring cancer.

My child is not sexually active. Why should they get the HPV vaccine?
We recommend making sure your child is protected before they start having sex and have the potential for exposure to HPV. This way, whenever they’re ready, they’ll already be protected.

Some parents worry that vaccinating a child against HPV will encourage them to become sexually active earlier. However, studies show that children and teens who get the HPV vaccine don’t have sex sooner or engage in riskier sexual behaviors compared to unvaccinated peers.

What is the best age to get the HPV vaccine?
The recommended age for receiving the HPV vaccine is 11 or 12, when children are also scheduled to receive the Tdap (tetanus, diphtheria and pertussis) and meningitis vaccines. It can be given to children as young as nine as well. The HPV vaccine is recommended and effective up to age 26 and available for patients up to age 45.

For children and teens up to age 15, it’s a two-dose vaccine. The second dose is given six to 12 months after the first dose. At this age, children and teens have a more robust response to the vaccine and generate enough antibodies to protect against HPV after two immunizations. Like adults, teens older than age 15 need three doses to get the same immune response.